Archives for category: blemish treament

Have you ever even heard of milia? Probably not, although it is a very common skin condition that effects everyone from infants to the elderly. Basically it is tiny white bumps on the skin. Just like any other skin condition there are several different types and treatments available to help you banish the bumps from sight!

Milia are asymptomatic and usually occur around the eyes in children and adults. Up to half of infants in the United States develop milia at some point. In appearance they are small skin lesions (bumps) that range from pearly white to pale yellow in appearance.

Primary milia are most typically seen in infants but may occur in adults. This type typically forms around the nose and eye region. Secondary milia are seen in different blistering disorders or following dermabrasion. Milia are tiny epideremoid cysts that may be may be derived from the pilosebaceous follicle.

Causes

Primary milia may be the result of sebaceous glands that are not fully developed (thus explaining its massive occurrence during infancy). Secondary milia form following blistering or trauma and disruption to the sweat glands. This type can also develop following skin treatments such as dermabrasion or radiotherapy.

Treatment

The most important thing to remember about milia is that they are completely harmless. As a parent it may be tempting to seek treatment for your child’s skin but left alone it will treat itself over time. Basically it is tiny pockets of dead skin cells on the surface and through the natural exfoliation process and building of new skin cells, skin will heal itself and the tiny bumps will disappear.

It is important to remember that milia is not like acne and should not be “pinched” or “popped”. This could lead to significant scarring when done, especially at home. If you are very concerned over the bumps on your skin or wish to seek treatment, consult with your dermatologist.

Prevention

The best way to treat milia is to prevent it from ever developing. This is not true in the case of infant milia – an infants skin is very delicate and should not be exposed to excess cleansers or treatments. Consult with your child’s physician before taking any action.

For teens and adults a gentle exfoliation can help in the prevention of milia but will not clear up the condition once it has developed. A gentle exfoliant will help soften the skin and ease the natural exfoliation process and prevent the build up of more dead skin cells. Remember that your skin is sensitive and should not be exposed to harsh chemicals or rough scrubbing as this will only cause more damage and trauma. (Over exfoliation may actually increase the occurrence of milia on the skin so use good judgment when developing a skin care routine).

Want to learn more about proper skin care? Find us online at http://www.bellaninainstitute.com.

Have you ever sat down to study your complexion in the mirror and been less than satisfied with what your looking at? Your complexion is natural color, texture and appearance of your skin. Skin can look radiant, smooth and healthy or it can appear sallow, discolored and sickly depending on your state of health and how well you take care of your body and especially your skin.

The history of how a “good complexion” has been measured dates back to as early as ancient Greece and some of the most affluent philosophers of that age. The complexion was thought to be the result of four fluids that permeated the body. Later this was transformed into theories about balance in the body and temperaments. Health of an individual was determined by complexion but since complexions can vary between different individuals there was no one best complexion to have.

Your individual complexion is the result of biology. Skin color is determined by melanin in the cells and causes variation in tone. The overall health and appearance of your skin is determined by a variety of factors including your heredity and external factors like exposure to sun, chemicals or even the food you eat. Your skin is sensitive to the environment (both inside your body and outside) and taking proper care of your skin is an important step in maintaining a healthy complexion.

Improving your complexion doesn’t have to be a stressful task. Incorporating a simple skin care regimen into your morning or nightly routine can take years of stress and premature aging off your face. Start slow and build a routine that is custom tailored to your skins needs.

Tricks of the Trade:

1) Moisturize Daily – nothing is better for your skin than staying hydrated. Moisturize in the morning after cleansing the skin and at night before going to bed.

2) Exfoliate – Removing the dead skin cells that build up naturally over time can make a big difference in your skins natural ability to look fresh and smooth. Use a gentle exfoliant on your face and body to prevent premature fine lines and wrinkles from developing.

3) Correct now – Don’t wait for problems to become too significant to treat at home. If you notice dry patches, oily regions or uneven coloring use some preventative treatments designed specifically for your skin issue. Leaving a problem to “heal itself” can be more costly and time consuming to fix in the long run.

4) Protect Yourself – use a sun block even in the winter to protect your skin from sun damage.

5) Eat Right! Your body needs nutrients to stay healthy and your skin will reflect a balanced and healthy diet filled with vitamins, protein and minerals. Some natural ingredients (such as Vitamin C) will improve the overall look of your skin and they are frequently used in many skin care products.

As an esthetician or skin care professional, you may have heard some controversy over the matter of performing extractions during a routine facial service. What may seem like a relatively simple procedure can actually raise great controversy in the world of esthetics. Some estheticians regard extractions as a matter of providing a complete service while others see this as inflicting trauma to the skin. Learning more about both sides of the issue can help you as a professional in making an informed decision and explaining the issue to your clients.

What is an extraction?

As a basic review, an extraction is removing impurity (plug of dead skin or oil) from a pore or pimple. It is the removal of both blackheads and whiteheads from the skin. Extractions occur after the skin has been thoroughly cleansed, exfoliated and sometimes steamed to soften the area prior to extraction.

Why Do It?

Extractions are considered a “must” by many estheticians when performing a routine facial because they want to leave their clients skin looking and feeling it’s best. When done correctly, a simple extraction should be quick and relatively painless. As a trained esthetician it is important to know if your client has sensitive skin which would make them more prone to the damage that can be caused by extractions.

Why Not?

Extractions should only be performed by a trained esthetician and should not be done in excess. Extractions can cause broken capillaries or sin irritations that can lead to more (not less) breakouts. Extractions can also cause discomfort for your client when done incorrectly so you should seek their permission before performing any type of extraction during their facial. Remember your client has the right to know any product or procedure being performed on their skin and make an informed choice.

Who Decides?

As an esthetician it may be entirely up to you or it may be a procedure within your salon to do or not do extractions. It is important to check the guidelines of your employer and know their policies before performing any procedure. Remember to explain extractions and their benefits and possible complications to your client. Trust is an important part of any relationship and your client needs to know you are being open and honest with them. The last thing you want as a professional is a reputation for inflicting unnecessary and unwanted procedures or damage to your client’s skin.

For more great information about home skin care products and acne treatments, check us out online at http://www.bellaninainstitute.com!

Have you ever wondered why facials are such a popular treatment? If you look at the services offered by almost every spa in the country, facials are among their most popular services. A facial is a beauty treatment for the face that traditional combines cleansing, exfoliation and moisturizes the skin to restore a youthful glow.

Facials should only be performed by licensed estheticians with specialized skin care training. A facial, although a pampering experience, still requires advanced knowledge of products and reactions. A trained esthetician will be able to offer a consultation to determine your individual skin care needs. In addition, some facials involve a process called extraction which is the removal of white or black heads from the skin and can lead to broken capillaries or skin discoloration if done improperly.

Masks are a popular product used during a facial. A mask typically contains minerals, fruits, oils or vitamins that are designed to rejuvenate the skin. Many natural ingredients provide the most effective skin care treatments and are becoming more popular. A facial will remove dead skin cells but another treatment goal is regenerating healthy skin cell production. As we age, this process can be slowed and lead to a dull and worn down appearance.

Before scheduling your next facial, take certain steps to ensure this experience will be positive and beneficial. Acquaint yourself with the different treatments available at your local spa so you can make an informed decision upon arriving. If you have any skin sensitivity, issues or allergies, let the spa know when you schedule your appointment or upon arrival so these can be accounted for. Finally, know your comfort zone and don’t be afraid to discuss any concerns you have with your practitioner. Go over the steps of the procedure

Have a self indulgent moment and book your next facial. It will leave your skin feeling smoother, fresher and brighter!

Walking through an average cosmetic or health care aisle can be a wild adventure as well as an educational experience. The shelves are lined with mysterious concoctions, all claiming to be the miracle cure for your skin. These special brews come complete with fancy containers, shiny labels and seven syllable words to boggle your mind. Venture closer to these magic elixirs and notice the fine print:

Normal skin
Dry Skin
Oily Skin
Sensitive Skin
Combination

You feel your fingers moving up to your cheek as you wonder; what skin type am I? What if I have sensitive skin and just don’t know it? Does one dry patch mean I need dry skin care? Will products meant for oily skin completely ruin my face?

The list of questions can go on and on with no end in sight until you realize that you can come to this mysterious world armed with knowledge and ready to go to battle. Choose wisely and you will benefit greatly from your decision. Choose poorly and you will need to return and choose again.

Normal Skin

First of all remove “normal” and insert “average”. People with other skin types are not “abnormal” and should not feel as such. Millions of people have each skin type listed and there are products specially targeted for each type.

A product labeled “normal skin” is intended for use on healthy, hydrated, even toned skin with small pores and no history of irritation from skin care products. The skin retains good elasticity, good complexion and there are no blemishes.

Most “normal skin” targeted products can be used on all skin types but may not produced treatment effects for certain skin issues.

Oily Skin

Perhaps one of the more dreaded skin types to have because of the negative connotations associated with it and potential self consciousness it can create. The result of overactive sebaceous (oil-producing) glands, this skin type can appear quite shiny, feel slightly greasy to the touch and is prone to acne and enlarged pores.

Products targeted for this skin type typically contain ingredients meant to cleanse the pores, exfoliate the skin and remove the excess oil and grime build up. These products would not be very beneficial for people with dry skin.

Dry Skin

Dry skin can be the result of genetics, the environment, exposure to chemicals and a variety of other causes. Dry skin is trademarked by tiny pores, flaky or ashy texture, fine lines and wrinkles and/or cracked skin.

Products for dry skin focus on re-hydrating the skin cells and stimulating healthy skin cells to develop. Many products will contain fat-soluble ingredients that penetrate the skin’s outer layer to reach the interior layers to replenish moisture from within. Exfoliants are used to shed away dead skin cells build up and reduce flaky texture.

Combination

As the name suggests, this skin type is a combination of the three above. Meaning it is possible (and frequent) to have normal skin with an oily “t-zone” which is the bridge of the nose and forehead. Perhaps dry lips with normal skin or dry forehead but the rest of your face is normal.

This skin type generally uses spot specific treatments to correct problem areas and “normal skin” care products for the rest of the face. This could include blemish control for oily areas if needed, masques for application on the t-zone, special creams for the eyes or lips, etc. Consult with an esthetician or dermatologist if you need more help creating an effective skin care routine.

Sensitive Skin

Sensitive skin is very typically dry and very reactive to heat, cold and any substances used on it. That can include all skin products, hair products and chemicals. Irritation may include rash, hives, itching, redness and swelling.

These skin care products are specially designed to omit using chemicals known to irritate sensitive skin but cannot be guaranteed. People with especially reactive skin should always consult with a doctor before beginning any new skin care treatment. Discontinue use of products at the first sign of negative reaction and take precaution by always wearing sun block to protect the sensitive tissue.

Final Thoughts

Have you figured out where you’re at yet and what to buy? Don’t be ashamed if you don’t have “normal skin” because the truth of the matter is, most people don’t. Focus on what problem areas you would like to focus on and choose a skin care routine that will be easy to maintain long term. The most important issue in skin care is persistence and maintenance. You must follow your individual plan every day and stick with it for your entire life. That is not meant to sound like a prison sentence, merely a reminder that skin care is not something you can do occasionally and expect to see real results.

No one likes to be judged by their skin but when you suffer from oily skin it can be particularly worrisome because of all the problems that can come with it. Waking up with fresh new blemishes, an unnatural shine to your skin and a greasy feeling are all unfortunate outcomes. Although some people have oily skin naturally, there are steps you can take to minimize the effects and reverse some of the problematic issues (such as blackheads and pimples).
Before looking into how to solve the problem, let’s take a moment to examine the root causes. By understanding what produces oily skin, you can better develop an effective treatment plan. In its simplest definition, oily skin is caused by overactive oil glands in the skin producing too much of your skin’s natural moisturizer, sebum. While it is important to have these natural oils to prevent dryness and cracking, it is important to control the amount of oil present at any given time. It is the build up of natural oils that leads to some of the main complaints people have about their skin.

Now that we have a basis for why this problem is occurring, what is the solution? Just as oil and water don’t mix in a bowl, water will not solve the oily residue problem on your face either. Patience is essential when trying to resolve any skin care issue and when it comes to oily skin, understanding that you may need to develop a permanent skin care regimen to prevent build up is important too. Oily skin issues may never be “fixed” but they can be maintained.
Cleansing your face with products specifically geared to your skin type will be the first and most important step you can take. Not all skin care products are designed to treat oily skin and some cleansers contain fatty acids that may actually make the condition worse so search carefully. Products containing Alpha Hydroxy Acids are designed to gently exfoliate the skin and will help to remove dead skin cells and build up on the face.
The less product containing oils and creams you apply to your face, the better off you will be. Most make ups and lotions contain oils and other ingredients that already clog the pores for someone without oily skin, by adding more oils on a regular basis; you are essentially adding fuel to a fire. If you can avoid it, try to limit your use of cosmetics and oil based products or search for specially formulated brands designated as oil-free.
By removing the excess oil, dirt and grime from your face on a regular basis you are already going to see some of the benefits of your labor. Of course as we stated earlier, the skin does need some oil to remain healthy and hydrated so after any cleansing or exfoliating it is important to follow that with an oil free moisturizer. The last thing you want to do is stimulate your glands to produce more oil to compensate for a lack of hydration in the skin cells.
With any skin care routine it is important to test products carefully and pay attention to your skins reaction. Any redness, itchy or irritation means you should discontinue use immediately and consult with your doctor about a possible allergy. If you have a particularly severe case of oily skin and over the counter remedies have not worked in the past, check with an esthetician or dermatologist regarding professional grade products.
Oily skin doesn’t have to make you self conscious any longer as long as you are patient and willing to take steps to control it before it controls you.

How many times in life do we go into a store looking for skin care solutions and end up leaving dazed and confused by which product works best? Walk down the beauty aisle at your local pharmacy and you will literally be bombarded with hundreds of products all promising you fast and effective results. With all this information being thrown your way, it is easy to get a little lost and certainly not be sure which product is really the one you need.

Before you run away and hide under the covers, try to re-evaluate your needs and shop smarter. Do your homework before choosing any new skin care products, research the key ingredients and learn about the efficacy (effectiveness) of the key ingredients from an independent source rather than from manufacturer claims. By utilizing the web to your advantage you can research product reviews from actual consumers and get the real “dirt” on popular name brand items before making an investment of your time, money and skin care health.

Once you have taken the steps towards better skin care knowledge its time to buckle down and make a choice. Skin care products can range from generic brands costing only a few dollars for massive quantities to high end merchandise costing hundreds of dollars for only an ounce. While the generic brand tub of lotion may seem like a great deal at first glance take a moment to consider the alternatives. If you are looking for potent skin care, you’re not going to find the results you want in the massive gallon of lotion on discount for $1.99 next to the candy bars. Step away from the sale and move on in your search.

The best plan of attack when it comes time to update your skin care routine is search for products available in small sample sized containers. This can come in the form of travel sized options (usually 2 ounces or less) or small foils packets (sometimes just referred to as foils). Many companies offer sample sets of products that are designed to be used together – these cost significantly less than their full sized counterparts and give you the opportunity to try a product without being commitment to an entire bottle. In these somewhat difficult financial times nothing hurts worse than buying something that turns out to be a dud.

When to invest…

Once you have tested a product and feel it is a good match for your needs, make the investment (even if it means spending a little more) and buy a 4 to 8 ounce container. Several skin care products are specially formulated to provide drastic results over time (sometimes upwards of six months) so don’t give up on a product that doesn’t transform your entire face overnight. Whether you are performing preventative skin care (always a good strategy) or trying to reverse damage (like fine line and wrinkles), the skin needs time to adapt and change. By trying to rush the process you could actually risk hurting your skin instead of helping it.

Depending on the recommended usage and quantity needed, 4 to 8 ounces is a relatively safe choice for your initial purchase and should last long enough for you to begin seeing results before needing to reorder. Buying in bulk may not be the wisest decision because skin care products, once opened, do have a shelf life. Depending on the product this can range from 3 months to a year (on average). Check with the manufacturer for details if you need more information on a particular product.

Time to Review!

So what do you need to remember next time you hit the drug store to find a new skin care cream to take care of those pesky crow’s feet?

Start Small and Do Your Research!

Skin care isn’t rocket science but it is an art to be mastered. Mistakes will happen but you can avoid wasting serious time and money by shopping smarter!

The development of uneven skin tones during middle age leads many consumers to seek out skin lighteners or brighteners as a solution. Commonly seen as a sign of aging, the formation of brown age spots has been associated with poor health in addition to being considered unsightly. Clear and even skin tones are seen as the epitome of youth and health so trying to recapture that look is considered to be a reasonable approach to this problem.

Uneven skin coloration is not a problem that is strictly associated with old age however and many people combat hyperpigmentation throughout their entire lives. By learning more about your skin and proper skin care treatments, you can make informed decisions as a consumer. Beginning with the most basic information: your skin color is determined by the amount of melanin present in your skin. There are two main determinants of your skin coloring and they are constitutive and facultative.

Constitutive skin color is determined by genetics and heredity. Facultative skin color is the result of sunlight, the environment and hormones – factors beyond genetics that impact the appearance of our skin color and can change over time. By developing a clear understanding of why your skin’s appearance is changing, you can develop a plan to reverse the damage and prevent further occurrences.

Hyperpigmentation is a factor of facultative skin color issues – this could be exposure to UV radiation, prescription drug use, pregnancy, etc. Outside influences that alter our skin’s appearance and cause discolored “spots” to form. Age or liver spots (lentigines) are flat discolorations on the skin and they are usually harmless. These are different from freckles (ephilides) which are typically flat and appear as a result of sun exposure – these will typically fade during the winter (although this is not always the case for extremely pale skinned people).

Treatment options for hyperpigmentation have sparked a variety of debates or the past few decades. The most effective treatments are skin lighteners containing the active ingredient hydroquinone (in concentrations up to 2%). There are concerns however about possible safety risks because as much as one third of the population may be allergic to hydroquinone. There is also studies that suggest it is an extreme sensitizer and cause more skin conditions (including hyperpigmentation) to develop after use. Although the FDA has considered banning the use of hydroquinone because of these possible complications, they have not done so yet and it is available in many over the counter products.

Because of these issues there are some steps you can take when using a product containing hydroquinone including always wearing sun block when going outside. Your skin will be especially sensitive to environmental influences and proper precautions should always be taken. Follow all instructions with any product and contact your physician immediately if you notice any type of adverse reaction.

Alternative skin lighteners are available that do not contain hydroquinone. This is a great choice for mature or sensitive skin because there is a lower risk of negative reactions to treatment. These skin lighteners may take longer to show results but can have longer term results than their more potent counter parts containing hydroquinone. Just a thought for those who may be seeking long term solutions and don’t mind waiting a little longer.

Many people consider hyperpigmentation to be an unattractive development on their skin and will take many extreme measures to reverse this problem. Keep in mind that most skin discolorations are generally harmless and treatments should be used as directed and not overused. Research any skin lightener or brightener carefully before use and test it on a small area of your skin before applying to a larger area such as your face. Remember that skin irritations are a common side effect when using any new skin care product and it is better to err on the side of caution by testing new products first.

Final thought: although there are many skin lighteners available on the market today the best option is prevention, not intervention. Try to always use sun block when going outside and cover your skin appropriately. It is much simpler (and more cost effective) to stop the problem before it starts. If you have lighter skin naturally, freckles and spots may continue to be a problem even after treatment because of the skins natural reaction against the environment to protect itself. Keep your skin healthy and happy by taking care of it and if possible, don’t sweat the small spots.

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Celebrities are notorious for being accused of using cosmetic surgery to maintain their good looks into maturity. A little “nip & tuck” procedure to reduce lines, redefine the chin or lift the brow can knock several years off your appearance. For decades, plastic surgery has been the solution to many middle aged (and sometimes younger) women and men’s solution to the battle against aging.
But before you go under the knife, consider the alternatives and evaluate your options carefully. Unnecessary surgery is not only time consuming and expensive, it also places your body under extreme stress and physical discomfort during the healing process. Added to that…without a change in how you care for your skin and body, you will still suffer the effects of aging down the line. More surgery means more scarring and more time spent trying to recover. The face and body is meant to age and it is a natural process. By using surgery to turn back the hands of time the face you see staring back at you in the mirror will not be your younger self, merely a shadow of who you used to be.

Learning about alternatives to surgery and testing a few non invasive procedures out is a great way to see significant results without the excessive costs and risks. Understanding what is happening to your face and body, why your appearance is changing, is a valuable tool in learning new ways to combat these problems without needing to resort to surgical intervention.

What causes fine lines, wrinkles and sagging skin?

There is a myriad of reasons why our skin begins to lose that tight and toned look. A major reason is the slowed production of collagen and loss of elasticity that allowed your skin to stay firm in your younger years. This will lead to sagging, hallowed cheeks and loose skin around the eyes, neck and ears.
Wrinkles are another common complaint that can be the result of natural aging as well. We all know that skin sheds and new skin cells are being formed constantly and migrate to the surface but what you may not know is that as we age this process slows also and sometimes the dead skin cells don’t shed away as easily. As skin cells accumulate on the surface this causes lines and wrinkles to form (dry and unhealthy appearing skin are also results).

So what can you do?

Lack of proper skin care can be the source of many early signs of aging. Developing a healthy skin care routine and targeting any problem areas before they become severe can dramatically slow the signs of aging. This includes cleansing the skin, using a daily moisturizer that is designed for maturing skin (boost collagen production, stimulates skin, etc.) and protecting yourself from excessive sun exposure.
It sounds too simple and easy to be effective, right? The truth of the matter is that by treating your skin right and keeping a daily routine, your skin can stay smooth well into older age. It’s all about taking control of the process of aging and not allowing problems to build up with no preventative action.

But I Really Want Something Dramatic, Not More Creams!

Maintaining a regular routine will be important no matter which route you decide on but if you are looking for something more dramatic that doesn’t involve surgery, there are options! Have you considered a facelift massage series? Not quite a facial, not just a massage but an innovative combination that stimulates the skin and more importantly the muscles beneath the skin.

A facelift massage typically requires a series of 6 (ideally 12) treatments that is designed to stimulate the collagen production and renew the former elasticity of the skin, while smoothing the fine lines and wrinkles around the eyes, mouth and neck. It is a relaxing treatment that takes typically an hour to complete.
The Bellanina Facelift Massage is a wonderful example of this revolutionary technique. Inspired by treatments used during the stars in Hollywood’s glamour days, the Bellanina Facelift Massage will rejuvenate the skin while soothing the mind and senses. Bellanina practitioners are available around the United States and can work with clients to target individual concerns and needs.

Where can I learn more?

Check out alternative options to surgery online and do your research carefully. Fully understand the benefits and potential risks before making your decision. Try an alternative treatment before resorting to consulting a plastic surgeon- you may be surprised how a change in behavior can result in significant changes to your appearance and outlook on skin care.

Make up is perhaps the ultimate catch 22.By covering uneven skin tones, adding eye catching lipstick and making your eyes “pop” with the perfect lash enhancing mascara, you can magically transform from ordinary to extraordinary! But what about at the end of the day when you come home and the last thing you want to do is stand in the bathroom for twenty minutes scrubbing your face clean? Do you just go to bed and worry about it in the morning? Anything meant for your face can’t be that bad for your skin, right?

The answer is NO.

Make up is extremely detrimental to your skin and can cause havoc on your efforts to keep your skin healthy and radiant naturally. Make up can only go so far to cover common skin problems (such as uneven coloring, blemishes, fine lines) but at the end of the day, proper skin care is going to be your greatest ally in keeping yourself looking beautiful in the years to come. If you want to wear make up during the day, remember to time into properly taking it off at the end of the day.

Use a basic make up remover A cleanser specifically designed to remove make up is a great way to break down the oils and other ingredients used in most cosmetics to keep them on and prevent smearing during the day. A good eye make up remover should be used because these will be specifically designed to prevent irritation during use and gently remove build up from mascara and eye shadows in the fine lines surrounding the sensitive eye tissue.

Use: Apply remover to cotton pad and gentle wipe across skin (so not apply pressure around eye). Allow remover to dissolve make up and may need to be repeated.

Remember that although you may have removed all the visible traces of make up from your skin, trace amounts of grimes and oils are still embedded in your pores and it is important to cleanse properly to remove these as well. Build up in the pores leads to acne, break outs and unhealthy build up of dead skin cells over time. Keep your skin clean and happy by using a daily cleanser, exfoliate and toner. Dirt, grime and debris are the last think you want covering your skin before going to bed at night and will not leave you feelinf refreshed and beautiful in the morning. Remember it’s call beauty sleep for a reason!

Want to hear a secret? Did you know that proper skin care can reduce or eliminate the need to wear make up entirely? No joke!

Skin care products meant to tone and target many common skin complaints can be used to eliminate these problems completely. Think of all the time and money you could save by developing a daily skin care routine that would give you the beautiful and vibrant skin you have always dreamed of (without cosmetic enhancement). Check us out online to learn more great skin care tips and solutions!